Zygomycosis in children: A systematic review and analysis of reported cases

Theoklis E. Zaoutis, Emmanuel Roilides, Christine C. Chiou, Wendy L. Buchanan, Tena A. Knudsen, Tatyana A. Sarkisova, Robert L. Schaufele, Michael Sein, Tin Sein, Priya A. Prasad, Jaclyn H. Chu, Thomas J. Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

149 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Zygomycosis has emerged as an increasingly important infection with a high mortality especially in immunocompromised patients. No comprehensive analysis of pediatric zygomycosis cases has been published to date. METHODS: We used a PUBMED search for English publications of pediatric (0-18 years) zygomycosis cases and references from major books as well as single case reports or case series. Individual references were reviewed for additional cases. Data were entered into Filemaker-pro database and analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-seven cases (64% male) were found with median age 5 years (range, 0.16-13). Underlying conditions included neutropenia (18%), prematurity (17%), diabetes mellitus (15%), ketoacidosis (10%), and no apparent underlying condition (14%). The most common patterns of zygomycosis were cutaneous (27%), gastrointestinal (21%), rhinocerebral (18%), and pulmonary (16%). Among 77 culture-confirmed cases, Rhizopus spp. (44%) and Mucor spp. (15%) were most commonly identified. Of 81 patients who were given antifungal therapy, 73% received an amphotericin B formulation only. The remaining patients received mostly amphotericin B in combination with other antifungal agents. Mortality in patients without antifungal therapy was higher than in those with therapy (88% versus 36%, P < 0.0001). Ninety-two (59%) patients underwent surgery. Cerebral, gastrointestinal, disseminated and cutaneous zygomycosis were associated with mortality rates of 100, 100, 88, and 0%, respectively. Independent risk factors for death were disseminated infection (OR: 7.18; 95% CI: 3.02-36.59) and age <1 year (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 1.05-7.43). Antifungal therapy and particularly surgery reduced risk of death by 92% (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) and 84% (OR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09-0.61), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Zygomycosis is a life-threatening infection in children with neutropenia, diabetes mellitus, and prematurity as common predisposing factors, and there is high mortality in untreated disease, disseminated infection, and age <1 year. Amphotericin B and surgery significantly improve outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)723-727
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Epidemiology
  • Mucormycosis
  • Outcome
  • Risk factors
  • Zygomycosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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