X Vision: A Portable Substrate for Real-Time Vision Applications

Gregory D. Hager, Kentaro Toyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

140 Scopus citations


In the past several years, the speed of standard processors has reached the point where interesting problems requiring visual tracking can be carried out on standard workstations. However, relatively little attention has been devoted to developing visual tracking technology in its own right. In this article, we describe X Vision, a modular, portable framework for visual tracking. X Vision is designed to be a programming environment for real-time vision which provides high performance on standard workstations outfitted with a simple digitizer. X Vision consists of a small set of image-level tracking primitives, and a framework for combining tracking primitives to form complex tracking systems. Efficiency and robustness are achieved by propagating geometric and temporal constraints to the feature detection level, where image warping and specialized image processing are combined to perform feature detection quickly and robustly. Over the past several years, we have used X Vision to construct several vision-based systems. We present some of these applications as an illustration of how useful, robust tracking systems can be constructed by simple combinations of a few basic primitives combined with the appropriate task-specific constraints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-37
Number of pages15
JournalComputer Vision and Image Understanding
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Feature-based visual tracking
  • Real-time vision
  • Vision-guided robotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition


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