Which HIV patients should be screened for osteoporosis: An international perspective

Elena Alvarez, Waldo H. Belloso, Mark A. Boyd, Ahmet C. Inkaya, Evelyn Hsieh, Andrew Kambugu, Greg Kaminski, Esteban Martinez, Hans Jurgen Stellbrink, Sharon Walmsley, Todd T. Brown, Patrick W.G. Mallon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose of review This review provides international insights into the real-world clinical approach to screening for bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in people living with HIV (PLWH) using opinions from HIV physicians from key regions around the world. Recent findings Although a significant proportion of PLWH are aged over 50, the relative importance of low BMD to clinical care differs significantly between countries and regions, based on factors such as the population at risk, access to adequate screening resources, and physicians' knowledge. Generally, management of osteoporosis in PLWH follows similar principals as for the general population, with risk factors for fracture combined with measurement of BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in algorithms such as Fracture Risk Assessment Tool, designed to provide an overall risk estimation. Although in most regions age is considered among the most important factors contributing to low BMD and fractures, considerable country and region-specific factors become apparent, such as malnutrition, inactivity and impact of comorbidities, substance abuse, and increasing use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Summary These opinions highlight the diversity that still exists in the approach to the long-term management of PLWH and highlight challenges facing development of consensus guidelines that can be effectively implemented worldwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-276
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent opinion in HIV and AIDS
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2016


  • Bone mineral density
  • Fracture
  • HIV
  • Osteoporosis screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Oncology(nursing)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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