Warm-up on a simulator improves residents' performance in laparoscopic surgery: A randomized trial

Chi Chiung Grace Chen, Isabel C. Green, Jorie M. Colbert-Getz, Kimberly Steele, Betty Chou, Shari M. Lawson, Dana K. Andersen, Andrew J. Satin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Introduction and hypothesis Our aim was to assess the impact of immediate preoperative laparoscopic warm-up using a simulator on intraoperative laparoscopic performance by gynecologic residents. Methods Eligible laparoscopic cases performed for benign, gynecologic indications were randomized to be performed with or without immediate preoperative warm-up. Residents randomized to warm-up performed a brief set of standardized exercises on a laparoscopic trainer immediately before surgery. Intraoperative performance was scored using previously validated global rating scales. Assessment was made immediately after surgery by attending faculty who were blinded to the warm-up randomization. Results We randomized 237 residents to 47 minor laparoscopic cases (adnexal/ tubal surgery) and 44 to major laparoscopic cases (hysterectomy). Overall, attendings rated upper-level resident performances (postgraduate year [PGY-3, 4]) significantly higher on global rating scales than lower-level resident performances (PGY-1, 2). Residents who performed warm-up exercises prior to surgery were rated significantly higher on all subscales within each global rating scale, irrespective of the difficulty of the surgery. Most residents felt that performing warm-up exercises helped their intraoperative performances. Conclusion Performing a brief warm-up exercise before a major or minor laparoscopic procedure significantly improved the intraoperative performance of residents irrespective of the difficulty of the case.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1615-1622
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Urogynecology Journal
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Warm-up

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Urology


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