Associations of vitamin D levels with prospectively measured functional decline and mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) are unknown. We determined whether lower baseline vitamin D levels are associated with a faster decline in functional performance and higher mortality among people with and without PAD. A total of 658 participants (395 with PAD) underwent baseline measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (DiaSorin radioimmunoassay), a 6-minute walk test, 4-meter walking velocity and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and were followed annually for up to 4 years. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, comorbidities, the ankle-brachial index, and other confounders. Among participants with PAD, lower baseline vitamin D levels were associated with a faster decline in the 6-minute walk (vitamin D <30 nmol/L: -70.0 feet/year; vitamin D 30 to <50 nmol/L: -72.3 feet/year; vitamin D 50 to <75 nmol/L: -35.5 feet/year; vitamin D 75 to <120 nmol/L: -35.9 feet/year; p trend=0.012). PAD participants with vitamin D <30 nmol/L had a faster decline in the SPPB and 6-minute walk compared to those with levels of 50 to <75 (p=0.034 and p=0.04, respectively). Among participants without PAD, lower vitamin D was associated with a faster decline in the fast 4-meter walking velocity (p trend=0.003). There were no significant associations of baseline vitamin D levels with all-cause or cardiovascular disease mortality in PAD or non-PAD participants. In conclusion, among individuals with and without PAD, low vitamin D status was associated with a faster decline in some measures of functional performance but was not related to mortality.
- intermittent claudication
- peripheral arterial disease
- peripheral vascular diseases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine