Vitamin d metabolites in aging hiv-infected men: Does inflammation play a role?

Long Zhang, Todd T. Brown, Joseph B. Margolick, Mallory D. Witt, Frank J. Palella, Lawrence A. Kingsley, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Adrienne Tin, Lisa P. Jacobson, Alison G. Abraham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The inflammatory context of HIV infection has been posited to contribute to the higher comorbidity risk noted in HIV-infected populations. One possible pathway may involve 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH) 2 D], which plays a wide biologic role in many tissues. We sought to investigate whether inflammation was associated with vitamin D metabolites in a cohort of HIV-infected (HIV+) men receiving treatment and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men. Vitamin D metabolites, including 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH) 2 D, were measured along with 24 inflammatory markers among Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants. Exploratory factor analysis reduced inflammatory marker data to a smaller set of inflammatory processes (IPs). Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate associations between vitamin D metabolites and IPs. There were 466 HIV+ and 100 HIV- men, who contributed 658 stored samples from 1998 to 2008. We found three IPs with IP 1 characterized by sTNF-R2, sIL-2Rα, sCD27, BAFF, sgp130, sCD14, CXCL10 (IP-10), and sIL-6R. While none of the three IPs was associated with 25(OH)D levels in either HIV+ or HIV-, higher levels of IP 1 were significantly associated with the reduced levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D in HIV+, and a similar although nonsignificant trend was seen in HIV-. The association between 1,25(OH) 2 D and inflammation found among HIV-infected men suggests a possible mechanism whereby inflammation leads to the increased comorbidity risk noted among HIV-infected individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1067-1074
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS research and human retroviruses
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • Biomarker
  • Hiv infected
  • Inflammation
  • Vitamin d

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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