Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons

David J. Llewellyn, Iain A. Lang, Kenneth M. Langa, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Caroline L. Phillips, Antonio Cherubini, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

318 Scopus citations


Background: To our knowledge, no prospective study has examined the association between vitamin D and cognitive decline or dementia. Methods: We determined whether low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were associated with an increased risk of substantial cognitive decline in the InCHIANTI population-based study conducted in Italy between 1998 and 2006 with follow-up assessments every 3 years. A total of 858 adults 65 years or older completed interviews, cognitive assessments, and medical examinations and provided blood samples. Cognitive decline was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and substantial decline was defined as 3 or more points. The Trail-Making Tests A and B were also used, and substantial decline was defined as the worst 10% of the distribution of decline or as discontinued testing. Results: The multivariate adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of substantial cognitive decline on the MMSE in participants who were severely serum 25 (OH)D deficient (levels

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1135-1141
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Internal Medicine
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 12 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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