Virotyping, genotyping, and molecular characterization of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheal patients of Bangladesh

Zimam Mahmud, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Israt Dilruba Mishu, Fatema Tuz Johura, Shahnewaj Bin Mannan, Abdus Sadique, Laila N. Islam, Munirul Alam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli has been previously detected in other locations, but not in Chhatak, a diarrhea endemic region of Bangladesh. In this study, 36 E. coli isolated from diarrhea stools of adults and children from Chhatak were investigated for the prevalence of drug resistance, virulence and resistance related genes, genotyping, and other molecular characteristics. Antibiotic resistance profiling was performed by disk diffusion method whereas the presence of virulence genes, mobile genetic elements, plasmids, and resistance-related genes were monitored by PCR assay. Multiple resistance to drugs was observed in 94.4% of the isolates and 24 (66.7%) of the strains were found as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) pathogroup. Genotyping by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed genetic heterogeneity among the MDR E. coli strains. Overall, 88% of E. coli strains possessed plasmids ranging from 0.6 to 140 MDa. Of the detected integrases (69%), intl1 was predominant (53%). Erythromycin esterase-B (ereB) was present in 8 out of 36 macrolide resistant strains (22%). Of 27 beta-lactam resistant isolates, 70%, 41%, and 33% carried blaCTX-M-1, blaTEM, and blaOXA, respectively. Of 23 tetracycline resistant strains, 13 tetB (57%) and 8 tetA (35%) were detected. All 24 ciprofloxacin resistant strains tested positive for gyrA, but none for qnrA. Sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA of two ciprofloxacin resistant strains showed two point mutations (S83L, D87N). Computational docking studies revealed a decreased interaction of the drug with the target due to this mutation. In conclusion, high incidence of plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli carrying virulence genes and resistance markers for antimicrobial drugs in diarrheagenic patients of Bangladesh is alarming as lateral transfer of these virulence and resistance genes in other infectious agents can make them irresistible, and infection control more challenging in the days to come.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101182
JournalGene Reports
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Antimicrobial resistance genes
  • Ciprofloxacin resistance mechanism
  • ERIC-PCR fingerprinting
  • Escherichia coli
  • gyrA mutation
  • Integrons
  • Mobile genetic elements
  • Molecular docking
  • Virulence genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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