Ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill stroke patients: Frequency, risk factors, and outcomes

Yusuke Kasuya, James L. Hargett, Rainer Lenhardt, Michael F. Heine, Anthony G. Doufas, Kerri S. Remmel, Julio A. Ramirez, Ozan Akça

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Our main objective was to assess incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: After obtaining approval from the Human Studies Committee, we reviewed the electronic records from our intensive care unit database of 111 stroke patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Thirty-six risk factors related to disease and general health status, and 8 related to care-all assigned a priori-were collected and analyzed. Selected factors with univariate statistical significance (P < .05) were then analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Thirty-one patients developed pneumonia (28%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12) and methicillin-sensitive S aureus (n = 7) were the most common pathogenic bacteria. Chronic lung disease, neurological status at admission as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and hemorrhagic transformation were the independent risk factors contributing to VAP. Worsening oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) and proton pump inhibitor use for ulcer prophylaxis were other potentially important factors. Conclusions: Pneumonia appears as a frequent problem in mechanically ventilated stroke patients. Chronic lung disease history, severity of stroke level at admission, and hemorrhagic transformation of stroke set the stage for developing VAP. The duration of both mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay gets significantly prolonged by VAP, but it does not affect mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-279
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Critical Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Incidence
  • Infection
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Oxygenation, Pao2/Fio2
  • Pneumonia, ventilator-associated
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Stress ulcer prophylaxis, proton pump inhibitors
  • Stroke, NIH Stroke Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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