Variation in Preferences for Long-Acting Injectable Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among US Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Latent Class Analysis

S. Wilson Beckham, Travis Sanchez, Rebecca Fowler, Maria Zlotorzynska, Mona Rai, Patrick Sullivan, Vani Vannappagari, Supriya Sarkar, Jennifer L. Glick, Alex R. Rinehart, Keith Rawlings, John F.P. Bridges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cabotegravir long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (LA PrEP) is efficacious, with a good safety profile, and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in December 2021. Understanding variations in potential user preferences for LA PrEP may inform implementation and subsequently improve uptake and community-level effectiveness. HIV-negative, sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) aged ‡15 years were recruited online for the 2019 American Men’s Internet Survey, before LA PrEP approval. Respondents completed a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) with hypothetical LA PrEP attributes (out-of-pocket cost, perceived side effects, injection frequency, perceived stigma, service location). Latent class analysis segmented respondents into groups based on their preferences for the attributes presented, and relative importance of preference weights and willingness-to-pay were calculated. While the majority had never used daily oral PrEP, 73% of the 2489 respondents were very or somewhat likely to use LA PrEP. Three latent classes were identified from 2241 respondents in the DCE. The ‘‘side effects-averse’’ class was the largest group (64% of respondents) and placed 61% relative importance on side effects. The ‘‘ambivalent’’ class (20% of respondents) placed higher importance on stigma (17% of relative importance) than other classes. The ‘‘cost-conscious’’ class (16% of respondents) placed higher relative importance (62%) on cost compared with other attributes and classes. Perceived side effects were an important hypothetical barrier for LA PrEP uptake among a large proportion of potential MSM users. Minimizing out-of-pocket costs is likely to increase uptake and may be important to equitable access. Tailored communication strategies are recommended for the different groups of potential LA PrEP users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-503
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS patient care and STDs
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2023


  • PrEP
  • discrete-choice experiment
  • prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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