Variant Presentations of the Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex: A 40-Year Experience

Mahir Maruf, Karl Benz, John Jayman, Matthew Kasprenski, Jason Michaud, Heather N. Di Carlo, John P. Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To investigate the diagnosis, surgical management, and outcomes in patients with variant EEC. Variant presentations of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) span a wide range of abnormalities. The rarity and diversity of EEC variants can lead to challenges in the diagnosis and subsequent management of this population. Methods: The authors reviewed an institutional database of 1336 EEC patients from 1975 to 2018 for variant presentations of EEC. Variant presentations included those with skin covered bladder exstrophy (BE), duplicate bladders, superior vesical fistula, and epispadias with major bladder prolapse. Surgical management and outcomes were assessed. Results: In total, 44 EEC variants were identified. Nineteen (43%) presented with a skin-covered BE variant. Five patients presented with duplicate BE, while 6 presented with superior vesical fistula. Fourteen patients (32%) presented with epispadias with major bladder prolapse. Overall, 36 (82%) EEC variants underwent primary bladder closure, at a median of 135 days after birth (range 1-2010), with 21 (58%) undergoing pelvic osteotomy. Primary closures were successful in 89% of cases. Continence procedures were performed in 17 patients. This includes 5 patients who underwent bladder augmentation. However even without a continence procedure, continence with volitional voiding was found in 8 patients. Conclusion: The most common EEC variant is the skin-covered form of BE. In order to expedite appropriate management, accurate diagnosis upon initial presentation is crucial. Still, successful surgical reconstruction often results in continence that is similar to, or better than, nonvariant EEC presentations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-190
Number of pages7
StatePublished - Mar 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Variant Presentations of the Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex: A 40-Year Experience'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this