Variable low dose rate irradiation (1311-anti-cea) and integrated low dose chemotherapy in the treatment of nonresectable primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Gary B. Stillwagon, Stanley E. Order, Tom Haulk, Jeff Herpst, David S. Ettinger, Elliott K. Fishman, Jerry L. Klein, Peter K. Leichner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Previous experience using 131I anti-CEA antibody, which irradiates at a variable low dose rate in combination with a multimodality treatment program, has demonstrated acceptable toxicity and response in primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In attempting to improve therapy, Cis-platin was added to the prior regimen. Induction therapy was unchanged. One month later, chemotherapy was given (doxorubicin, 15 mg, 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg, plus Cis-platin, 20 mg/M2) followed the next day by outpatient administration of 20 mCi 131I anti-CEA by i.v. bolus. Five days later, 10 mCi was administered. The latter regimen (chemotherapy plus 20 + 10 MCi 131I anti-CEA) was repeated every 2 months using polyclonal antibodies derived from different species (rabbit, pig, baboon, and horse). Twenty-four patients (29% with prior chemotherapy and/or metastases) were prospectively treated according to this regimen. Toxicity was limited to hematologic toxicity and was manifested by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia (17% and 4% grade 4, respectively, according to RTOG toxicity criteria). Tumor remission was evaluated by CT volumetric analysis and demonstrated a 14% response rate for the induction portion of therapy, 24% for the radioimmunoglobulin portion of treatment, and 50% remission rate when all subsequent tumor volumes were compared to the pre-treatment volume (entire program). The median survival for the entire group of patients was 10.1 months. This result is superior to previously reported trials and, in comparison to our previous study (10.1 vs 6.5 months median survival), further advancement in protocol design appears to have been made. In view of the rarity of this disorder, a randomized trial is not possible and strict statistical analyses cannot be made. The mechanism of 131I-anti-CEA variable low dose irradiation and chemotherapy interaction is discussed as well as further potential modifications for treatment improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1601-1605
Number of pages5
JournalInternational journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1991


  • Anti-CEA
  • Antibodies
  • Biliary tract neoplasms
  • Iodine-131
  • Liver neoplasms
  • Radioimmunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'Variable low dose rate irradiation (1311-anti-cea) and integrated low dose chemotherapy in the treatment of nonresectable primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this