Validation of population-based ADHD subtypes and identification of three clinically impaired subtypes

Heather E. Volk, Cynthia Henderson, Rosalind J. Neuman, Richard D. Todd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Statistically based classification methods have successfully refined ADHD into homogenous and heritable subtypes. External validity and impairment of these subtypes was examined using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We compared mean CBCL syndrome and competency t-scores across ADHD subtypes defined by latent class analysis in a sample of 1,346 individual twins from Missouri. The potential for comorbidity with conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or major depression (MD) to increase impairment in specific ADHD subtypes was also examined. CBCL profiles confirm differences in severity, with more severe classes having increased syndrome scale and decreased competency scale CBCL scores. Clinically significant impairment was found for severe inattentive and combined subtypes and the mild combined subtype. Overall, the presence of comorbid CD, ODD, or MD did not result in increased ADHD subtype impairment. CBCL scores distinguish impairment in ADHD subtypes created through LCA. Comorbidity with CD, ODD, or MD does not significantly increase impairment among ADHD subtypes. The mild combined ADHD subtype represents a clinically significant but under-studied form of ADHD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)312-318
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume141 B
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 5 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
  • Latent class analysis
  • Subtype
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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