Valence ratings of emotional and non-emotional words in children

Roma A. Vasa, Anthony R. Carlino, Kamala London, Christopher Min

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Words of varying emotional content are widely used as stimuli in studies that examine the cognitive responses to threat in childhood anxiety disorders. To date, there are limited data on word stimuli that elicit emotional responses in children. The purpose of this study was to collect children's valence ratings of different types of emotional words. Typically developing children (n = 174; ages: 9-11 years) rated a pre-selected list of 81 words from three emotional categories: threat, positive, and neutral. Children's valence ratings differentiated the three word categories with strong internal consistency in each category. Furthermore, females provided more extreme valence ratings than males. Mean valence ratings and word characteristics for each word are provided. These words can potentially be used to develop experimental paradigms that examine reactions to emotional words in children with and without anxiety disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1169-1180
Number of pages12
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number6
StatePublished - Oct 2006


  • Children
  • Cognition
  • Emotional ratings
  • Experimental paradigms
  • Valence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Valence ratings of emotional and non-emotional words in children'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this