Using pneumococcal carriage data to monitor postvaccination changes in invasive disease

Daniel M. Weinberger, Dana T. Bruden, Lindsay R. Grant, Marc Lipsitch, Katherine L. O'Brien, Stephen I. Pelton, Elisabeth A.M. Sanders, Daniel R. Feikin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced worldwide. However, few developing countries have high-quality surveillance systems available for monitoring vaccine impact. We evaluated whether data from nasopharyngeal carriage studies can be used to accurately monitor post-PCV changes in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)among children under 5 years of age.For various dates during 1991-2010, data on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and on IPD before and after administration of 7-valent PCV (PCV7) were available from England andWales, the Netherlands, the Navajo and White Mountain Apache American Indian populations, and the US states of Massachusetts and Alaska.We estimated the change in carriage prevalence for each serotype in each studyand then either calculated the average change (inverse variance-weighted)among vaccine and nonvaccine serotypes (model 1) or used mixed-effects models to estimate the change for each serotype individually, pooling serotype data within or between studies (models 2 and 3). We then multiplied these values by the proportion of IPD caused by each serotype during the pre-PCV7 period to obtain an estimate of post-PCV7 disease incidence. Model 1 accurately captured overall changes in IPD incidence following PCV7 introduction for most studies, while the more detailed models, models 2 and 3, were less accurate. Carriage data can be used in this simple model to estimate post-PCV changes in IPD incidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1488-1495
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Carriage
  • Conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal
  • Pneumococcus
  • Surveillance
  • Vaccine effectiveness
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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