People living with HIV have a higher risk of developing tuberculosis, and tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death among people living with HIV globally. Treating HIV and tuberculosis concurrently has morbidity and mortality benefits. However, HIV and tuberculosis co-treatment is challenging due to drug–drug interactions, overlapping toxicities, tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution syndrome, and concerns for treatment failure or drug resistance. Drug–drug interactions between antiretrovirals and tuberculosis drugs are driven mainly by the rifamycins (for example, the first-line tuberculosis drug rifampicin), and dose adjustments or drug switches during co-treatment are commonly required. Several implementation challenges and research gaps exist when combining the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), highly potent antiretroviral drugs recommended as first-line treatment of HIV, and drugs used for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Ongoing and planned studies will address some critical questions on the use of INSTIs in settings with a high tuberculosis burden, including dosing of dolutegravir, bictegravir, and cabotegravir when used with the rifamycins for both tuberculosis treatment and prevention. Failure, in the past, to include people with tuberculosis in HIV clinical treatment trials has been responsible for some of the research gaps still evident for informing optimisation of HIV and tuberculosis co-treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases