Urinary metals and metal mixtures and oxidative stress biomarkers in an adult population from Spain: The Hortega Study

Arce Domingo-Relloso, Maria Grau-Perez, Inmaculada Galan-Chilet, Maria J. Garrido-Martinez, Carmen Tormos, Ana Navas-Acien, Jose L. Gomez-Ariza, Lidia Monzo-Beltran, Guillermo Saez-Tormo, Tamara Garcia-Barrera, Antonio Dueñas Laita, Laisa S. Briongos Figuero, Juan C. Martin-Escudero, F. Javier Chaves, Josep Redon, Maria Tellez-Plaza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Introduction: Few studies have investigated the role of exposure to metals and metal mixtures on oxidative stress in the general population. Objectives: We evaluated the cross-sectional association of urinary metal and metal mixtures with urinary oxidative stress biomarkers, including oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8‑oxo‑7,8‑dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG), in a representative sample of a general population from Spain (Hortega Study). Methods: Urine antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were measured by ICPMS in 1440 Hortega Study participants. Results: The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of GSSG/GSH comparing the 80th to the 20th percentiles of metal distributions were 1.15 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI]: 1.03–1.27) for Mo, 1.17 (1.05–1.31) for Ba, 1.23 (1.04–1.46) for Cr and 1.18 (1.00–1.40) for V. For MDA, the corresponding GMRs (95% CI) were 1.13 (1.03–1.24) for Zn and 1.12 (1.02–1.23) for Cd. In 8-oxo-dG models, the corresponding GMR (95% CI) were 1.12 (1.01–1.23) for Zn and 1.09 (0.99–1.20) for Cd. Cr for GSSG/GSH and Zn for MDA and 8-oxo-dG drove most of the observed associations. Principal component (PC) 1 (largely reflecting non-essential metals) was positively associated with GSSG/GSH. The association of PC2 (largely reflecting essential metals) was positive for GSSG/GSH but inverse for MDA. Conclusions: Urine Ba, Cd, Cr, Mo, V and Zn were positively associated with oxidative stress measures at metal exposure levels relevant for the general population. The potential health consequences of environmental, including nutritional, exposure to these metals warrants further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-180
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironment international
StatePublished - Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Metal mixtures
  • Oxidative stress
  • Population-based
  • Urine metals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Urinary metals and metal mixtures and oxidative stress biomarkers in an adult population from Spain: The Hortega Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this