Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection

Michael T. Brady, Carrie L. Byington, H. Dele Davies, Kathryn M. Edwards, Mary Anne Jackson, Yvonne A. Maldonado, Dennis L. Murray, Walter A. Orenstein, Mobeen H. Rathore, Mark H. Sawyer, Gordon E. Schutze, Rodney E. Willoughby, Theoklis E. Zaoutis, Henry H. Bernstein, David W. Kimberlin, Sarah S. Long, H. Cody Meissner, Marc A. Fischer, Bruce G. Gellin, Richard L. GormanLucia H. Lee, R. Douglas Pratt, Jennifer S. Read, Joan L. Robinson, Marco Aurelio Palazzi Safadi, Jane F. Seward, Jeffrey R. Starke, Geoffrey R. Simon, Tina Q. Tan, Joseph A. Bocchini, W. Robert Morrow, Larry K. Pickering, Geoffrey L. Rosenthal, Dan L. Stewart, Almut Winterstein, Jennifer M. Frantz, Shawn L. Ralston, Allan S. Lieberthal, Brian K. Alverson, Jill E. Baley, Anne M. Gadomski, David W. Johnson, Michael J. Light, Nizar F. Maraqa, Eneida A. Mendonca, Kieran J. Phelan, Joseph J. Zorc, Danette Stanko-Lopp, Sinsi Hernández-Cancio, Mark A. Brown, Ian Nathanson, Elizabeth Rosenblum, Stephen Sayles, Caryn Davidson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

321 Scopus citations


Guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for the use of palivizumab prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first published in a policy statement in 1998. Guidance initially was based on the result from a single randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 1996-1997 describing an overall reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 10.6% among placebo recipients to 4.8% among children who received prophylaxis. The results of a second randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children with hemodynamically significant heart disease were published in 2003 and revealed a reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 9.7% in control subjects to 5.3% among prophylaxis recipients. Because no additional controlled trials regarding efficacy were published, AAP guidance has been updated periodically to reflect the most recent literature regarding children at greatest risk of severe disease. Since the last update in 2012, new data have become available regarding the seasonality of RSV circulation, palivizumab pharmacokinetics, the changing incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, the effects of gestational age and other risk factors on RSV hospitalization rates, the mortality of children hospitalized with RSV infection, and the effect of prophylaxis on wheezing and palivizumab-resistant RSV isolates. These data enable further refinement of AAP guidance to most clearly focus on those children at greatest risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e620-e638
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Bronchiolitis
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Infants and young children
  • Palivizumab
  • RSV
  • Respiratory syncytial virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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