Update on bladder cancer molecular subtypes

Megan Hoi Yan Fong, Mingxiao Feng, David J. McConkey, Woonyoung Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In 2014, there was a burst of studies on the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer in the published literature that was made possible by the advances in high-throughput technologies. Based on gene expression profiling, the major molecular classification subdivisions were basal and luminal subtypes, which resembled to those observed in breast cancers. These basal and luminal subtypes were further subdivided by TCGA into squamous, infiltrated, luminal-papillary, luminal/genomically unstable (GU), and neuronal/small cell carcinoma (SCC) subtypes. Recently, an international subtypes consensus project further expanded on the TCGA subtypes by defining a consensus molecular classification (CMC). A multidisciplinary team of experts generated CMC to overcome the difficulties of clinical applications due to several published bladder cancer molecular classifications with various nomenclatures and molecular features. It included six molecular subtypes with the addition of one more luminal subtype (luminal nonspecified) compared to the TCGA subtype classification. The initial research efforts have focused on the characterization of each subtype at the molecular and histopathologic levels, but more recent studies have examined their significance in terms of clinical utility, i.e., biomarkers that inform prognostication and/or to predict therapeutic responses to be tested in future clinical trials. This review provides an overview of recent investigations into the relationship between molecular subtypes and the clinical management of patients with bladder cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2881-2889
Number of pages9
JournalTranslational Andrology and Urology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Bladder cancer
  • Clinical application
  • Molecular subtypes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Urology


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