Update on Allergen Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis: Drops, Tablets, or Shots?

Christopher R. Roxbury, Sandra Y. Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only disease-modifying treatment available for allergic rhinitis (AR). Dosing considerations, efficacy, and safety of subcutaneous (SCIT), sublingual (SLIT), and intralymphatic (ILIT) immunotherapy are discussed. Recent Findings: Patients with AR who cannot tolerate or do not wish to continue indefinite pharmacotherapy may be candidates for AIT. SCIT is the gold standard formulation but requires repeat injections over several years and may place the patient at risk for systemic allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. SLIT has been developed as an alternative formulation by which the patient can avoid multiple injections and physician visits as it is dosed at home. SLIT has been proven to be very safe but still requires prolonged treatment, and efficacy compared to SCIT has been questioned. ILIT is currently being developed with the goal of shortening length of treatment while maintaining the efficacy and safety of SCIT and SLIT. Summary: SCIT and SLIT are current options for patients wishing to undergo AIT. Further studies are required to determine if ILIT may become an effective option for patients who do not wish to undergo long-term treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-186
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Otorhinolaryngology Reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Allergen-specific immunotherapy
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Intralymphatic immunotherapy
  • Subcutaneous immunotherapy
  • Sublingual immunotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Surgery
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Clinical Neurology


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