Update in the Diagnosis and Management of Central Nervous System Infections

Wendy C. Ziai, John J. Lewin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Central nervous system (CNS) infections presenting to the emergency room include meningitis, encephalitis, brain and spinal epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and ventriculitis. These conditions often require admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and are complications of ICU patients with neurologic injury, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. Reducing morbidity and mortality is critically dependent on rapid diagnosis and, perhaps more importantly, on the timely initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. New insights into the role of inflammation and the immune response in CNS infections have contributed to development of new diagnostic strategies using markers of inflammation, and to the study of agents with focused immunomodulatory activity, which may lead to further adjunctive therapy in human disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)427-468
Number of pages42
JournalNeurologic clinics
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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