Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated optogenetics

Zhigao Yi, Angelo H. All, Xiaogang Liu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated optogenetics enables remote delivery of upconverted visible light from a near-infrared light source to targeted neurons or areas, with the precision of a pulse of laser light in vivo for effective deep-tissue neuromodulation. Compared to conventional optogenetic tools, upconversion nanoparticle-based optogenetic techniques are less invasive and cause reduced inflammation with minimal levels of tissue damage. In addition to the optical stimulation, this design offers simultaneously temperature recording in proximity to the stimulated area. This chapter strives to provide life science researchers with an introduction to upconversion optogenetics, starting from the fundamental concept of photon upconversion and nanoparticle fabrication to the current state-of-the-art of surface engineering and device integration for minimally invasive neuromodulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages17
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Near-infrared
  • Neuromodulation
  • Opsin
  • Optogenetics
  • Remote control
  • Upconversion nanoparticle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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