Unique features of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagenome revealed through sequence annotation

Jill L. Wegrzyn, John D. Liechty, Kristian A. Stevens, Le Shin Wu, Carol A. Loopstra, Hans A. Vasquez-Gross, William M. Dougherty, Brian Y. Lin, Jacob J. Zieve, Pedro J. Martínez-García, Carson Holt, Mark Yandell, Aleksey V. Zimin, James A. Yorke, Marc W. Crepeau, Daniela Puiu, Steven L. Salzberg, Pieter J. de Jong, Keithanne Mockaitis, Doreen MainCharles H. Langley, David B. Neale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations


The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (~20-40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)891-909
Number of pages19
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Unique features of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagenome revealed through sequence annotation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this