Underrepresentation of Racial Diversity in Simulation: An International Study

Cynthia Foronda, Susan L. Prather, Diana Baptiste, Colette Townsend-Chambers, Linda Mays, Crystal Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIM The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the presence of racial diversity in simulation centers globally and 2) determine the opinion of the simulation community related to incorporation of a diversity component into international simulation standards. BACKGROUND Leading organizations in nursing education recommend improved efforts toward diversity and inclusion. Research suggests a lack of diversity in simulation-based education. METHOD This study employed a mixed-methods design. RESULTS Quantitative results demonstrated an underrepresentation of racial diversity in manikins, body parts/task trainers, standardized patients, and simulation facilitators. Two thirds of respondents indicated that international simulation standards should recommend a diversity component. Qualitative findings indicated categories of: 1) challenges of purchasing, realism, and availability; 2) importance of diversity in simulation; 3) representation of the regional population; 4) more diversity considerations needed; and 5) presence of diversity. CONCLUSION There is a continued need for diversity advocacy efforts in nursing education.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)152-156
Number of pages5
JournalNursing education perspectives
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2020


  • Diversity
  • Inclusion
  • Manikins
  • Nursing Education
  • Simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Education


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