Ultra Rapid-Acting Inhaled Insulin Improves Glucose Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Philip Levin, Byron J. Hoogwerf, Janet Snell-Bergeon, Tim Vigers, Laura Pyle, Lee Bromberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To determine whether the use of an inhaled insulin would improve HbA1c. Methods: This study was performed in 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants with HbA1c values ≥7.5 (58) to ≤11.5% (102 mmol/mol) on a variety of glucose-lowering regimens. Prandial Technosphere insulin (TI) was rapidly titrated based on a treatment algorithm using postprandial blood glucose to calculate premeal doses. A 2-week baseline period was followed by 12 weeks of active treatment with TI. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included glucose time in range (time in range: 70-180 mg/dL) obtained by a blinded continuous glucose monitoring during the baseline period and at the end of 12 weeks. Goals were to assess how to rapidly and safely initiate TI intensification, determine dosing requirements, and establish an effective dose range in uncontrolled T2DM. Results: Mean HbA1c decreased by −1.6% (−17 mmol/mol) from 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) at baseline to 7.4% (57 mmol/mol) at 12 weeks (P <.0001). Mean time in range increased from 42.2% to 65.7% (P <.0002). Mean prandial doses of TI were 18 or 19 units for all meals. Time below range was 1.1% baseline and 2.6% post treatment (P =.01). Conclusion: Treatment with inhaled TI dosed using a simple algorithm improved glycemic control measured by both HbA1c and time in range, with low rates of hypoglycemia. These data add significantly to understanding TI in the management of T2DM patients for whom prandial insulin is a consideration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-454
Number of pages6
JournalEndocrine Practice
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • diabetes
  • hyperglycemia
  • insulin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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