Data are limited about the prevalence trends of risk factors, lesion morphology, and clinical outcomes of coronary artery disease in patients, aged ≤45 years, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), between the bare-metal stent (BMS; 1994 to 2002) and drug-eluting stent (DES; 2003 to 2012) eras. From the PCI database at the Cleveland Clinic, we identified 1,640 patients aged ≤45 years and without a history of coronary artery bypass grafting who underwent PCI from 1994 to 2012. There were 883 patients in the BMS era cohort with a mean follow-up period of 13.15 years and 757 in the DES era cohort with a mean follow-up of 5.02 years. The DES era had more obese (51.8% vs 44.7%, p <0.001) and diabetes (23.0% vs 19.5%, p = 0.09) patients. DES era patients had more B2/C lesions (74.0% vs 32.5%, p <0.001), more severe preprocedural stenosis (86.1 ± 12.9 vs 72.2 ± 21.3, p <0.001), and longer lesions (15.5 ± 9.9 vs 9.6 ± 6.8, p <0.001). No difference was observed in the 30-day mortality between the DES and BMS eras. Irrespective of era, diabetics had worse long-term mortality (19.4% vs 9.3%, p <0.001) compared with nondiabetics. Obese patients had similar long-term outcomes compared with nonobese patients. In conclusion, patients aged ≤45 years, who underwent a PCI procedure in the DES era had worse risk factor profiles, including obesity, compared with patients in the BMS era. They also had more complex lesions. Procedural and long-term outcomes of these patients have not changed between the 2 eras. Young diabetic patients have worse long-term outcomes compared with nondiabetics.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine