Tumor microenvironment: Key players in triple negative breast cancer immunomodulation

Hongmei Zheng, Sumit Siddharth, Sheetal Parida, Xinhong Wu, Dipali Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease and is highly related to immunomodulation. As we know, the most effective approach to treat TNBC so far is still chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can induce immunogenic cell death, release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and tumor microenvironment (TME) remodeling; therefore, it will be interesting to investigate the relationship between chemotherapy-induced TME changes and TNBC immunomodulation. In this review, we focus on the immunosuppressive and immunoreactive role of TME in TNBC immunomodulation and the contribution of TME constituents to TNBC subtype classification. Further, we also discuss the role of chemotherapy-induced TME remodeling in modulating TNBC immune response and tumor progression with emphasis on DAMPs-associated molecules including high mobility group box1 (HMGB1), exosomes, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), which may provide us with new clues to explore effective combined treatment options for TNBC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3357
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • Immunomodulation
  • Triple negative breast cancer
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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