Trends in Utilization and Cost of Inpatient Spinal Cord Stimulation: Analysis of Data from 2008 to 2014

Anshit Goyal, Archis R. Bhandarkar, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Tim J. Lamer, Halena M. Gazelka, Allan J. Belzberg, Richard B. North, Mohamad Bydon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: In this study, we sought to characterize contemporary trends in cost and utilization of spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Methods: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project−National Inpatient Sample was queried for inpatient admissions from 2008 to 2014 where SCS was performed. We then determined the rates and costs of SCS performed in this time frame to treat diagnoses that we classified as device-related complications, degenerative spine disease, pain syndromes, and neuropathies/neuritis/nerve lesions. Least-squares regression was performed to determine the yearly trends for each indication adjusted by the total number of yearly hospitalizations for that diagnosis. Results: We identified a total of 6876 admissions in whom an SCS was performed. The overall rate of inpatient SCS procedures performed has decreased by 45% from 2008 to 2014 (14.0 to 7.7 procedures per 100,000 admissions). Adjusted analysis for yearly trends also demonstrated a declining trend for all indications; however, this was not found to be statistically significant, except for device-related complications (P = 0.004). The median inflation-adjusted cost of an admission where SCS was performed increased slightly by 7.4% from $26,200 (IQR: $16,700−$33,800) in 2008 to $28,100 (IQR: $19,600−$36,900) in 2014. Billed hospital charges demonstrated a significant increase with median inflation-adjusted admission charge of $66,068 in 2008 to $110,672 in 2014. Conclusions: Despite a declining contemporary trend in inpatient SCS, an increase was noted in admission costs and hospital charges. A significant declining trend was noted in revision SCS implantations due to device-related complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e171-e188
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Health policy
  • Medical economics
  • Neuromodulation
  • Spinal cord stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Trends in Utilization and Cost of Inpatient Spinal Cord Stimulation: Analysis of Data from 2008 to 2014'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this