Trends in the marginal cost of male circumcision in Rural Rakai Uganda

Yira N. Alfonso, David Bishai, Agnes Nantongo, Rebecca Kakembo, Sarah Kobusinge, Seema Kacker, Godfrey Kigozi, Ronald Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: Male circumcision (MC) is an effective intervention to reduce HIV acquisition in men in Africa. We conducted a cost analysis using longitudinal data on expenditures on services and community mobilization to estimate the marginal cost of MC over time and understand cost drivers during scale-up. Methods: We used a time series with monthly records from 2008 to 2013, for a total of 72 monthly observations, from the Rakai MC Program in Uganda. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the marginal cost of an MC procedure. Results: The marginal cost per MC in a mobile camp was $23 (P < 0.01) and in static facilities was $35 (P < 0.1). Major cost drivers included supplies in mobile camps with increasing numbers of surgeries, savings due to task shifting from physicians to clinical officers, and increased efficiency as personnel became more experienced. Conclusions: As scale-up continues, marginal costs may increase because of mobilization needed for less motivated late adopters, but improved efficiency could contain costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)564-571
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number5
StatePublished - Dec 15 2016


  • HIV
  • Uganda
  • generalized linear model
  • male circumcision
  • marginal cost
  • scale-up

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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