Treatment outcomes of African American buprenorphine patients by parole and probation status

Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Jan Gryczynski, Sharon M. Kelly, Kevin E. O'Grady, Jerome H. Jaffe, Yngvild K. Olsen, Robert P. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This secondary analysis compared outcomes in African American adults newly admitted to buprenorphine treatment and who were on parole and probation with outcomes in patients who were not under criminal justice (CJ) supervision. Buprenorphine patients (N = 300) were randomly assigned to receive either intensive outpatient (IOP) treatment or standard outpatient (OP) treatment and were assessed at baseline, and 3 and 6 months. There were no differences between groups in treatment retention. Among probationers/parolees, IOP treatment was associated with lower 3-month treatment retention compared with OP treatment, but among participants not on probation/parole, the relationship was reversed (p = .004). Both conditions showed significant declines in heroin and cocaine use, illegal activity, and in meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for opioid and cocaine dependence. Probationers/parolees reported a lower frequency of illegal activities at 3 months compared with nonprobationers/nonparolees (p = .007). Buprenorphine treatment should be made more widely available to individuals on parole/probation as they respond as well to treatment as patients not supervised by the CJ system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-82
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Drug Issues
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • African Americans
  • Buprenorphine treatment
  • Criminal justice
  • Drug abuse treatment
  • Parole and probation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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