Treatment modalities of thyroid related orbitopathy

Eric S. Ahn, Prem S. Subramanian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Aims: The aim was to highlight recent advances in the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Existing literature and the authors′ experience was reviewed. Results: Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a disfiguring and vision-threatening complication of autoimmune thyroid disease that may develop or persist even in the setting of well-controlled systemic thyroid status. Treatment response can be difficult to predict, and optimized algorithms for disease management do not exist. Thyroid ophthalmopathy should be graded for both severity and disease activity before choosing a treatment modality for each patient. The severity of the disease may not correlate directly with the activity; medical treatment is most effective in active disease, and surgery is usually reserved for quiescent disease with persistent proptosis and/or eyelid changes. Conclusions: Intravenous pulsed corticosteroids, orbital radiotherapy, and orbital surgical techniques form the mainstay of current management of thyroid ophthalmopathy. Immunosuppressive and biologic agents may have a role in treating active disease although additional safety and efficacy studies are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)999-1002
Number of pages4
JournalIndian Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014


  • Chemosis
  • optic neuropathy
  • strabismus
  • thyroid eye disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Treatment modalities of thyroid related orbitopathy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this