Transoral approaches to the cervical spine

Wesley Hsu, Jean Paul Wolinsky, Ziya L. Gokaslan, Daniel M. Sciubba

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


A NUMBER OF anterior approaches to the craniocervical junction have been described to allow exposure to the midline and lateral aspects of both the cranial base and upper cervical spine. The transoral-transpharyngeal approach, a technique that is well known to many spine surgeons, provides surgical access to the anterior clivus, C1, and C2. Transoral approaches provide the fundamental anatomy and technique upon which the more complex jaw-splitting approaches are based. This article discusses fundamental concepts regarding anatomy, perioperative considerations, and technical aspects critical to this important approach to the craniocervical junction. The transoral-transpharyngeal approach remains the "gold standard" for anterior approaches to the cervical spine. Endoscopic endonasal and endoscopic transcervical approaches are promising alternatives that may become more mainstream as experience with these approaches increases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A119-A125
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2010


  • Basilar invagination
  • Craniocervical junction
  • Endoscopy
  • Odontoid
  • Transoral

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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