Ischemic stroke is increased in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The differential diagnosis of stroke in SLE is complex. Transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke share pathophysiologic mechanisms, but prognosis may vary depending on severity and cause, and definitions are dependent on the timing and extent of the diagnostic evaluation. In SLE patients with a history of transient ischemic attacks, stroke occurred in 57%. Cerebrovascular events account for 20% to 30% of deaths in patients with SLE. In SLE, both disease-specific and traditional stroke risk factors are important.
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