A common myeloid progenitor gives rise to both granulocytes and monocytes. The early stages of granulopoiesis are mediated by the C/EBPalpha, PU.1, RAR, CBF, and c-Myb transcription factors, and the later stages require C/EBPepsilon, PU.1, and CDP. Monocyte development requires PU.1 and interferon consensus sequence binding protein and can be induced by Maf-B, c-Jun, or Egr-1. Cytokine receptor signals modulate transcription factor activities but do not determine cell fates. Several mechanisms orchestrate the myeloid developmental program, including cooperative gene regulation, protein:protein interactions, regulation of factor levels, and induction of cell cycle arrest.
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