Transcription factor AP-2 regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression

Neil D. Perkins, Adam B. Agranoff, Colin S. Duckett, Gary J. Nabel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression is regulated by an enhancer region composed of multiple potential cis-acting regulatory sites. Here, we describe binding sites for the transcription factor AP-2 in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat which modulate HIV enhancer function. One site is embedded within the two previously described κB elements, and a second site is detected further downstream. DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments demonstrated that AP-2 binds to the site between the κB elements. Interestingly, AP-2 and NF-κB bind to this region in a mutually exclusive manner. Mutations which disrupt this AP-2-binding site lower basal levels of transcription but do not affect NF-κB-mediated induction by tumor necrosis factor alpha in Jurkat T leukemia cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6820-6823
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology


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