Trajectories of Alzheimer disease-related cognitive measures in a longitudinal sample

Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Andrew Lang, Jerry Prince, Luigi Ferrucci, Bruno Jedynak, Susan M. Resnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Background The delineation of the relative temporal trajectories of specific cognitive measures associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for evaluating preclinical markers and monitoring disease progression. Methods We characterized the temporal trajectories of measures of verbal episodic memory, short-term visual memory, and mental status using data from 895 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) immediate recall was the first measure to decline, followed by CVLT delayed recall. However, further along the disease progression scale, CVLT delayed recall and visual memory changed more rapidly than CVLT immediate recall. Conclusions Our findings reconcile reports of early changes in immediate recall with greater reliance on delayed recall performance in clinical settings. Moreover, the utility of cognitive markers in evaluating AD progression depends on the stage of cognitive decline, suggesting that optimal endpoints in therapeutic trials may vary across different stages of the disease process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)735-742.e4
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • California verbal learning test
  • Disease progression score
  • Memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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