Training and Educational Approaches to Minimally Invasive Surgery: State of the Art

Adrian Park, Donald B. Witzke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Current training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is inadequate given the demands of patients on practitioners and the number of surgeons and residents who still need to be trained. The training that is provided is neither widespread nor is it standardized, resulting in graduate surgeons with a wide range of competence. There is little guidance in what a training program needs to be effective. We provide a brief review of the state of the art of MIS training with some emphasis given to training methods including perceptual motor training, MIS learning laboratories, virtual reality, evaluation and assessment, cost, simulation fidelity, credentialing, certification, privileging, and ergonomics. We conclude that the state of the art is left wanting. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (iJSA). All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-205
Number of pages8
JournalSurgical Innovation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • evaluation
  • laparoscopy
  • simulation
  • surgery
  • training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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