Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome, are an intriguing group of paroxysmal movement abnormalities that begin in childhood, have a fluctuating course, are capable of causing psychosocial and physical problems, and often improve by early adulthood. These disorders are frequently associated with a variety of comorbid problems whose negative effects may exceed those of tics. Therapy is strictly symptomatic and usually includes educational, behavioral, and a variety of pharmacological therapies. Although there is strong evidence supporting an inherited basis, the precise genetic abnormality remains unknown. A proposed poststreptococcal autoimmune etiology remains controversial. Pathophysiologically, tics appear to arise from an alteration within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, but the definitive site is unknown. Evidence supports an abnormality of synaptic neurotransmission, likely involving the dopaminergic system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)641-657
Number of pages17
JournalHandbook of clinical neurology
StatePublished - 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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