Tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence among patients with respiratory diseases in Vietnam: Status and correlated factors

Phuong Thu Phan, Giap Van Vu, Chau Quy Ngo, Quyen Le Thi Pham, Lan Phuong Thi Doan, Trang Huyen Thi Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Trang Ha Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Carl A. Latkin, Cyrus S.H. Ho, Roger C.M. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Understanding nicotine dependence can support clinicians in enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for respiratory patients. Our research aimed to assess the severity of nicotine dependence among patients with respiratory diseases in Vietnam and accordingly suggest potential interventions for tobacco cessation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Respiratory center of Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, for two months of 2016 (October and November). A total of 508 respondents participated in the study Data on socio-economic characteristics and smoking patterns were collected. The Euroqol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) were used to evaluate patient's quality of life and the nicotine dependence level, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests were used to assess the differences between variables. We applied the multivariate logistic regression and Tobit regression to categorize the association between nicotine dependence level and other factors. Results: A total of 508 patients enrolled in our study. Former smokers and current smokers accounted for 8.1% and 38.6% of the sample, respectively. Current smokers were more likely to be male, work as free lancers, and report anxiety/depression. Higher level of nicotine dependence among current smokers was associated with the employment status of the patient. The mean number of cigarettes per day was 15.7 (SD = 11.1). The mean score of the FTND was 5.1 (SD = 2.0). Freelancers were more likely to be a current smoker (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.21; 5.79). People who experienced anxiety/depression had a higher likelihood of smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.04; 4.72). Conclusions: Current smokers demonstrated a moderate level of nicotine dependence, which predict a difficult quitting and suggest the development of specialized programs to support smoking cessation counseling. Furthermore, the capabilities of physicians in supporting and counseling patients in quitting smoking should be strengthened.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108562
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Nicotine dependence
  • Respiratory patient
  • Tobacco use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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