Tobacco Craving Questionnaire: Reliability and validity of a new multifactorial instrument

Stephen J. Heishman, Edward G. Singleton, Eric T. Moolchan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


This study documented the initial reliability and validity of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (TCQ), a new multidimensional questionnaire to assess tobacco craving. Current cigarette smokers (n = 213) not attempting to reduce or quit smoking completed the 47-item TCQ and other forms assessing demographics, tobacco and other drug use history, quit attempts, and current mood. Exploratory factor analyses and structural equation modeling indicated that a four-factor solution best described the item structure. Factor subscales derived from the 17 items with significant loadings had low to high internal consistencies and interitem correlations and exhibited low to moderate, positive intercorrelations. Factor scales were significantly correlated with single-item measures of craving, current mood, and daily cigarette smoking. Results indicated that four specific constructs characterized craving for tobacco: (a) Emotionality, or smoking in anticipation of relief from withdrawal symptoms or negative mood, (b) expectancy, or anticipation of positive outcomes from smoking, (c) compulsivity, or an inability to control tobacco use, and (d) pur posefulness, or intention and planning to smoke for positive outcomes. These preliminary data suggest that the TCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing tobacco craving in individuals not attempting to reduce or quit smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)645-654
Number of pages10
JournalNicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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