Tobacco addiction and pharmacological interventions

B. E. Garrett, C. A. Rose, J. E. Henningfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Even though its health consequences are well known, tobacco use continues to kill millions of smokers worldwide every year. In the US alone, tobacco use kills > 430,000 people each year. The global mortality toll is approximately 5 million annually and this is increasing. It is the powerful grip of tobacco addiction that sustains high levels of daily smoke intake and persistent smoking, with > 90% of all cigarette smokers who quit, resuming smoking within 1 year. Tobacco addiction, which places tremendous health and economic burdens on individual societies, is also becoming a global epidemic. Although tobacco addiction is a complex phenomenon, it is treatable and several effective medications are now available. In the mid-1980s, the US FDA approved nicotine gum, the first of these effective pharmacological aids. Other effective medications have subsequently become available, including nicotine transdermal patches, nasal spray, oral vapour inhaler, sublingual nicotine tablets and bupropion. These medications and the potential for development of new medications will be reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1545-1555
Number of pages11
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Nicotine dependence
  • Nicotine replacement therapy
  • Nicotine withdrawal
  • Smoking cessation
  • Tobacco addiction
  • Tobacco dependence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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