Three-Dimensional Mapping to Guide Optimal Catheter Position in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

David Spragg, Fady Dawoud, Albert C. Lardo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


Contractile dyssynchrony due to intraventricular conduction delay diminishes systolic function and is a major independent risk factor for worsening heart failure. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a relatively new treatment that employs a biventricular pacemaker to re-coordinate contraction in ventricles with conduction delay. Although it is highly effective in many patients, approximately 35% do not respond to the therapy. Even when the "right" patient is selected for CRT using inadequate baseline predictors of responsiveness, stimulating the "wrong" left ventricular (LV) site remains an important cause ofnon-response to CRT. As the underlying disease substrate can vary widely from patient to patient, employing a "one size fits all" strategy has raised skepticism. In this chapter,we review the potential role of mapping both the electrical and mechanical myocardial substrate to enable personalized lead placement for CRT implementation. This edition first published 2013

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCardiac Mapping
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9780470670460
StatePublished - Dec 18 2012


  • Biventricular pacemaker
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Contractile dyssynchrony
  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator platform.
  • Left bundle branch block
  • Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy
  • Surface electrocardiogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-Dimensional Mapping to Guide Optimal Catheter Position in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this