Three- and four-dimensional fetal echocardiography

Sifa Turan, Ozhan Turan, Ahmet A. Baschat

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

20 Scopus citations


The rapid continuing development of 3-dimensional ultrasound imaging technologies has extended capabilities of fetal cardiac scanning beyond 2-dimensional imaging technologies and now provides a wide array of analytic possibilities. The acquisition of the 3D volume information is based on initial application of 2-dimensional imaging techniques including grey scale, Doppler, Power Doppler and B-flow modalities. Once the cardiac volume is obtained a combination of postprocessing tools such as surface mode, minimal mode, transverse rendering, inversion and glass body modes allow preferential display of various features of the fetal heart. Motion display modes including cine-loop and spatiotemporal image correlation in combination with automated and semiautomated display of examination planes opens a whole new array of diagnostic possibilities in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-372
Number of pages12
JournalFetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Fetal echocardiography
  • Spatiotemporal image correlation
  • Tomographic ultrasound imaging
  • Ultrasound, 3D/4D
  • Volume analyses
  • Volume computer-aided diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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