Objective Cryptogenic intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for approximately 15% of all subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. Diagnostic workup after negative cerebral digital subtraction angiogram typically includes magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spine for arteriovenous malformations, tumors, and fistulae. Only a few cases of thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations have been associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods Case series and review of the literature. Results We found 3 patients at our institution who had nontraumatic, nonaneurysmal intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage with isolated spinal vascular malformation in the thoracolumbar region. Including our 3 cases, we found a total of 15 similar cases in the literature. Most of the patients were younger, most having concurrent spinal cord symptoms of radiculopathy (27%), myelopathy (20%), or bladder bowel involvement (20%). Most of the spinal vascular malformations were intramedullary or conus medullaris type. Locations of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage were mostly isolated to the perimesencephalic area and posterior fossa. Conclusions In younger populations presenting with nonaneurysmal intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms related to the spinal cord, evaluation for thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations must be included in the initial workup.
- Key words Myelopathy
- Nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Thoracolumbar spinal vascular malformations
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology