Thick–section, single breath–hold magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography

James R. MacFall, H. Dirk Sostman, Thomas K F Foo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Rationale and objectives. Approaches to performing magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the pulmonary vasculature are described using very fast (repetition time [TR] <13 mseconds) radiofrequency (rf)-spoiled, gradient-recalled pulse sequences and the standard quadrature body imaging coil of a commercial 1.5-T MR imaging system. METHODS AND RESULTS. Signal-to-noise (SNR) is improved by signal averaging (Nex ≥ 4) in a two-dimensional, single thick-section approach and by volume acquisition (Nex = 1) in a three-dimensional approach. Blood signal loss is minimized by using short, asymmetric echoes (echo time [TE] ≤ 2.7 mseconds). Respiratory motion is eliminated by keeping the scan time short enough (approximately 15 seconds) for image acquisition within a single breath-hold. Cardiac motion artifacts are reduced with section orientations that avoid intersecting the heart and/or use of small flip angle (α ≤ 25°). CONCLUSIONS. Images of healthy volunteers showed that while single thick sections have superior SNR, the three-dimensional approach appears to produce better visualization of the peripheral vascular segments and offers improved ability to process the images to remove overlapping structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-322
Number of pages5
JournalInvestigative Radiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Magnetic resonance angiography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Pulmonary angiography
  • Three-dimensional imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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