The U.S. vaccine and immunization enterprise: Working to sustain and foster vaccine innovation

Angela K. Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The U.S. vaccine and immunization enterprise has been successful in introducing new vaccines to the U.S. and global markets. The vaccine sector of the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing growth projected to increase through the next decade. Despite the successes and future promise, challenges exist for funding the research and development and delivery of new vaccines. Adult and adolescent vaccination coverage of routinely recommended vaccines remains low and financial barriers to vaccination have emerged due to the increased cost of vaccination including the increased price of newer vaccines. Because the development and manufacture of new vaccines rely on the sales of established vaccines and other products, high coverage rates are important to the vaccine industry. Moreover, government and foundation support can assist in the research and development and introduction of new vaccines, especially for those vaccines that are necessary for use in the developing world. Novel approaches are needed to encourage and expand partnerships to advance vaccine research and development. Manufacturers in emerging economies have an increasing role in providing innovative vaccines to the world.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)649-653
Number of pages5
JournalHuman vaccines
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Biotechnology
  • Emerging countries
  • Financing
  • Global health
  • Immunization
  • Research
  • Vaccine development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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