The successful implementation of pharmaceutical practice guidelines: Analysis of associated outcomes and cost savings

David A. Lubarsky, Peter S.A. Glass, Brian Ginsberg, Guy De L. Dear, Mark E. Dentz, Tong J. Gan, Iain C. Sanderson, Monty G. Mythen, Sherry Dufore, C. Christopher Pressley, William C. Gilbert, William D. White, M. Lynne Alexander, Robert L. Coleman, Mark Rogers, J. G. Reves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

116 Scopus citations


Background: Although approximately 2,000 medical practice guidelines have been proposed, few have been successfully implemented and sustained. We hypothesized that we could develop and institute practice guidelines to promote more appropriate use of costly anesthetics, to generate and sustain widespread compliance from a large physician group, and to decrease costs without adversely affecting clinical outcomes. Methods: A prospective before and after comparison study was performed at a tertiary care medical center. Clinical outcomes data and times indicative of perioperative patient flow were collected on the first of two sets of patients 1 month before discussion of practice guidelines. Practice guidelines were developed by the physicians and their associated care team for the intraoperative use of anesthetic drugs. A drug distribution process was developed to aid compliance. Clinical outcomes data and times indicative of perioperative patient flow were collected on the second set of patients 1 month after institution of practice guidelines. Hospital drug costs and adherence to guidelines were noted throughout the study period and for each of the following 9 months by querying the database of an automated anesthesia record keeper. Results: A total of 1,744 patients were studied. Drug costs decreased from 56 dollars per case to 32 dollars per case as a result of adherence to practice guidelines. Perioperative patient flow was minimally affected. Time (mean ± SD) from end of surgery to arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) increased from 11 ± 7 min before the authors instituted practice guidelines to 14 ± 8 min after practice guidelines (P < 0.0001). Admission of inpatients to the PACU receiving monitored anesthesia care increased from 6.5 to 12.9% (P < 0.02). Perioperative patient flow and clinical outcomes were not otherwise adversely affected. Compliance and cost savings have been sustained. Conclusions: This study is an example of a successful physician- directed program to promote more appropriate utilization of health care resources. Cost savings were obtained without any substantial changes in clinical outcomes. Institution of similar practice guidelines should result in pharmaceutical savings in the range of 50% at tertiary care centers around the country, with a slightly smaller degree of savings expected at institutions with more ambulatory surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1145-1160
Number of pages16
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997


  • Anesthesia, costs
  • Anesthesia, recovery periods
  • Anesthesiology, physicians' practice patterns
  • Economics, drugs
  • Equipment, computers: information systems
  • Outcomes
  • Practice guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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