Background: An area of contention among colorectal surgeons is when it is safe to discharge patients who have undergone closure of diverting ostomies. This study aimed to review the trends in outpatient stoma closure (OSC), to assess the safety of this practice, and to identify appropriate surgical candidates for the outpatient procedure. Methods: Patients were queried from the ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005–2016). Main outcomes included Clavien-Dindo (C-D) III–V class surgical complications, and readmission. Outpatient stay was defined as a hospital stay of less than or equal to 1 day. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for C-D III–V complications and readmission. Results: Of 24,393 patients, 668 (2.74%) underwent an OSC. OSC has increased over the last decade (3.16% 2005–2006, 4.14% 2016, p < 0.001). Outpatients had significantly lower ASA class and fewer comorbidities than inpatients. Outpatient complication rate was significantly lower than the inpatient rate (2.99% vs. 7.25%, p < 0.001). Readmissions were comparable (8.92% outpatient vs. 9.77% inpatient, p = 0.54). ASA > 2, smoking, COPD, dyspnea, steroid use, bleeding disorder, and partial/total dependency were associated with increased risk of complications and readmission. Patients without any risk factors had lower complication (4.75%) and readmission rates (8.09%) compared to those with ≥ 2 risk factors (11.50% complication and 13.07% readmission rate, p < 0.001). Conclusions: There is an increasing trend in the percentage of stoma closures being performed as outpatient procedures. Appropriate selection of patients preoperatively who are suitable candidates for OSC can be helpful in managing patient expectations and hospital resources.
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