The Paradox of Muscle Hypertrophy in Muscular Dystrophy

Joe N. Kornegay, Martin K. Childers, Daniel J. Bogan, Janet R. Bogan, Peter Nghiem, Jiahui Wang, Zheng Fan, James F. Howard, Scott J. Schatzberg, Jennifer L. Dow, Robert W. Grange, Martin A. Styner, Eric P. Hoffman, Kathryn R. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy in humans and syndromes in mice, dogs, and cats. Affected humans and dogs have progressive disease that leads primarily to muscle atrophy. Mdx mice progress through an initial phase of muscle hypertrophy followed by atrophy. Cats have persistent muscle hypertrophy. Hypertrophy in humans has been attributed to deposition of fat and connective tissue (pseudohypertrophy). Increased muscle mass (true hypertrophy) has been documented in animal models. Muscle hypertrophy can exaggerate postural instability and joint contractures. Deleterious consequences of muscle hypertrophy should be considered when developing treatments for muscular dystrophy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-172
Number of pages24
JournalPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2012


  • DMD
  • GRMD
  • Muscle hypertrophy
  • Muscular dystrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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