The modified graeb score: An enhanced tool for intraventricular hemorrhage measurement and prediction of functional outcome

Timothy C. Morgan, Jesse Dawson, Danielle Spengler, Kennedy R. Lees, Chanel Aldrich, Nishant K. Mishra, Karen Lane, Terence J. Quinn, Marie Diener-West, Christopher J. Weir, Peter Higgins, Mark Rafferty, Katie Kinsley, Wendy Ziai, Issam Awad, Matthew R. Walters, Daniel Hanley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose-Simple and rapid measures of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) volume are lacking. We developed and validated a modification of the original Graeb scale to facilitate rapid assessment of IVH over time. Methods-We explored the relationship between the modified Graeb scale (mGS), original Graeb scale, measured IVH volume, and outcome using data from the Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Hemorrhage with rtPA B (CLEAR B) study. We also explored its reliability. We then evaluated the relationship between mGS and outcome in a large sample of participants with IVH using data contained within the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA). We defined outcome using the modified Rankin scale (>3 signifying poor outcome). Results-The CLEAR B study included 360 scans from 36 subjects. The mGS score and IVH volume were highly correlated (R = 0.80, P<0.0001, R2 0.65). Baseline mGS was predictive of poor outcome (area under receiving operating characteristic curve 0.74, 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.91), whereas the original Graeb scale was not. The VISTA study included 399 participants. Each unit increase in the mGS led to a 12% increase in the odds of a poor outcome (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.19). Measures of reliability (intra- and inter- reader) were good in both studies. Conclusions-The mGS, a semiquantitative scale for IVH volume measurement, is a reliable measure with prognostic validity suitable for rapid use in clinical practice and in research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)635-641
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2013


  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Interobserver variation
  • Intraventricular pressure
  • Outcomes assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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